Oblique Shock Wave Relations Calculator
Airspeed is calculated as a function of the difference between Pitot Pressure and Static Pressure as follows:. Calculated or Indicated airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for instrument errors, position error due to incorrect pressure at the static port and installation errors. Calibrated airspeed values less than the speed of sound at standard sea level Keep in mind that this is for your basic vanilla airspeed indicator and does not include calculations for TRUE Airspeed for which you must include the variables of True Temperature and True Altitude.
Pitot pressure is the measurement of the air forced into the Pitot Tube by the movement of the aircraft through the air. Pitot tubes are mounted on the aircraft facing forward so that air is forced into them. Most small aircraft have only one tube, larger aircraft have a redundant system and will have two tubes. The most common manufacturer of these tubes is Rosemont Corp.
Also on larger aircraft, those that fly at higher altitudes, the Pitot Tube is heated in order to prevent icing, smaller aircraft typically do not have this function.
The Pitot Tube is connected directly to the back of the airspeed indicator the Pitot input and if the aircraft is so equipped also to the Air Data Computer via a hose which is typically either plastic or rubber. The Static Port is located in a position on the aircraft that will not be affected by air flow as the aircraft moves through the air. This is typically on the side of the fuselage but can also be on the back side of the Pitot Tube or any other number of locations, it varies by the aircraft.
Again smaller aircraft will typically have one Static Port, larger aircraft with redundant systems will have two. Again connection is typically made via a hose either rubber or plastic.
Airspeed Calculation: Airspeed is calculated as a function of the difference between Pitot Pressure and Static Pressure as follows: Calculated or Indicated airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for instrument errors, position error due to incorrect pressure at the static port and installation errors. Stay tuned for upcoming Blogs. Pitot Static System ….The vent entry is assumed to be a pressure vessel or piping at stagnation pressure valid when the pipe or vessel diameter is much greater than the vent diameter.
The calculated vent EIt pressure is flowing pressure stagnation pressure minus dynamic pressure. Minor losses should include the vent entry, valves and bends etc. The vent EIt should not be included. The discharge coefficient can be used to factor the flow rate, depending on the design requirements.
For rupture disks, the flow resistance factor of the rupture Kr should be included in the minor losses the resistance factor should be factored for the vent diameter. A discharge coefficient of 0. Alternatively, the PRV calculators can be used for rupture disk calculations. ASME B Calculate single phase gas flow rate from a pipe or pressure vessel through a constant diameter vent API section 5.
The flow is assumed to be isothermal constant temperature. At lower pressures the vent EIt flow is sub critical M Minor losses should include the vent entry, valves and bends etc.
The vent EIt should not be included the fluid dynamic pressure is included in the calculation. The Darcy friction factor is calculated using the rough pipe equation for fully turbulent flow. The discharge coefficient can be used to factor the mass flow rate. The calculation ignores phase changes. This calculation should not be used for PRV's. Calculate single phase liquid flow rate and pressure drop through a constant diameter vent API section 5. Minor losses should include the vent entry, valves, bends etc, and the vent EIt the fluid dynamic pressure is not included in the calculation.
Calculate steam flow rate from a pipe or pressure vessel through a constant diameter vent API section 5.As an object moves through a gas, the gas molecules near the object are disturbed and move around the object. Aerodynamic forces are generated between the gas and the object and the magnitude of these forces depend on many factors associated with the object and the gas. The speed of the object relative to the gas introduces many significant effects.
We characterize the speed of the object by a non-dimensional number called the Mach number ; the Mach number is the ratio of the speed of the object to the speed of sound in the gas. The speed of "sound" is actually the speed of transmission for small, isentropic disturbances in the gas. The physical state of the gas depends on the Mach number of the object. In our discussions, we will use the Mach number of the object and the Mach number of the flow interchangeably.
If we travel with the object as it moves through the air, the air moves past the object at the speed of the object. So, the Mach number of the object and the Mach number of the flow are the same number. For a moving flow of gas, there are several different values for the temperature of the gas.
The static temperature is the temperature of the gas if it had no ordered motion and was not flowing. From kinetic theorystatic temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the random motion of the molecules of the gas. The value of the static temperature of air depends on the altitude.Stagnation Pressure
For a moving flow, there is a dynamic temperature associated with the kinetic energy of ordered motion of the flow in the same way that static temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the random motion of the molecules.
The total temperature is the sum of the static temperature and the dynamic temperature. If the moving flow is isentropically brought to a halt on the body, we measure the stagnation temperature. The stagnation temperature is important because it is the temperature that occurs at a stagnation point on the object. Because the total temperature does not change through a shock wavethe stagnation temperature and and the total temperature have the same value at a stagnation point.
In the process of slowing the flow, the gas is heated due to the kinetic energy of flow. The amount of the heating depends on the specific heat capacity of the gas.
If the specific heat capacity is a constant value, the gas is said to be calorically perfect and if the specific heat capacity changes, the gas is said to be calorically imperfect. At subsonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, air is calorically perfect.
But under low hypersonic conditions, air is calorically imperfect. Derived flow variables, like the speed of sound and the isentropic flow relations are slightly different for a calorically imperfect gas than the conditions predicted for a calorically perfect gas because some of the energy of the flow excites the vibrational modes of the diatomic molecules of nitrogen and oxygen in the air.Pressure definitions are at times ambiguous when performing calculations.
AFT software is equipped to handle each definition presented for the user.
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Stagnation pressure is also known as total pressure and accounts for the dynamic pressure and the static pressure. This is best represented with a pitot tube pointed into the direction of flow. The static pressure does not consider any buildup of pressure resulting from local velocities and is represented with a pressure tap normal to flow.
Log in. Remember Me. Contact Us. Static Pressure. Stagnation vs. Resources Video — Static vs. Close Window.Pipe inside diameter and internal cross section area are calculated from the pipe diameter and wall thickness. Use the Result Table option to display a table of the inside diameter and cross section area versus either outside diameter or wall thickness. The combination of valve and nozzle must be tested with the operating fluid, and certified as having a flow rate greater than or equal to the calculated flow rate for the effective size.
Use the Result Table option to display the effective diameter and cross section area versus API letter designation. ASME B The gas compressibility factor is calculated from the critical point temperature, critical point temperature, and the accentric factor using either the Peng Robinson, Soave, Redlich Kwong or Van Der Waals equations of state EOS.
The compressibility factor calculation is valid for gas phase only. Use the Result Plot option to plot compressibility factor versus pressure and temperature, compressibility factor versus pressure and equation of state type, or compressibility factor versus temperature and equation of state type.
Pressure relief valve calculations are based on frictionless flow, however there are significant friction losses incurred in a pressure relief valve.
API effective orifice sizing is used to compensate for the pressure losses in relief valves the actual nozzle area is greater than the effective nozzle area. The API flow rate is calculated for isentropic flow. The pipe inside diameter and cross section area are calculated from the pipe schedule diameter and wall thickness. Calculate pipe inside diameter and internal cross section area for a circular pipe or duct.In fluid dynamicsstagnation pressure or pitot pressure is the static pressure at a stagnation point in a fluid flow.
In an incompressible flow, stagnation pressure is equal to the sum of the free-stream static pressure and the free-stream dynamic pressure. Stagnation pressure is sometimes referred to as pitot pressure because it is measured using a pitot tube.
The magnitude of stagnation pressure can be derived from a simplified form of Bernoulli Equation. At a stagnation point, the speed of the fluid is zero.
If the gravity head of the fluid at a particular point in a fluid flow is zero, then the stagnation pressure at that particular point is equal to total pressure. In compressible flow the stagnation pressure is equal to total pressure only if the fluid entering the stagnation point is brought to rest isentropically. Stagnation pressure is the static pressure a gas retains when brought to rest isentropically from Mach number M.
The above derivation holds only for the case when the gas is assumed to be calorically perfect. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Download as PDF Printable version.A pitot tube can be used to measure fluid flow velocity by converting the kinetic energy in a fluid flow to potential energy. The principle is based on the Bernoulli Equation where each term of the equation can be interpreted as pressure. The first term - p - is the static pressure. It is static relative to the moving fluid and can be measured through a flat opening in parallel to the flow. It represent the pressure due to change in elevation.
The Bernoulli Equation states that the energy along a streamline is constant - and can be modified to. Since v 2 is zero, 2 can be modified to:. It is common to use head instead of pressure. The pitot tube is a simple and convenient instrument to measure the difference between static, total and dynamic pressure or head.
The charts below are based on air density 1. Note that as indicated in the diagram above - pitot tubes are not suited for low velocity flow. Due to low dynamic pressure head the readings will be inaccurate. The point velocities in a duct, channel or pipe can be measured by traversing the cross-sectional area of the conduit.
The point velocities can be used to calculate the average velocity that can be used to estimate the flow. For round ducts larger than 10 inches the average velocity can be calculated as the arithmetic middle of a 10 point traverse from inward side wall with distance.
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Oblique Shock Wave Relations Calculator